Philosophy against difficult times. Who will win? History shows us that philosophy wins. There is no philosophy, there is no you either. Philosophy is the staff on which humanity rests as it climbs higher and higher along the sheer cliff. Below is a precipice, emptiness, death. Above – the unknown, maybe an even steeper slope, and maybe an oasis.
We have read a very useful now book “A Brief History of Philosophy” and have chosen for you a few thoughts of not the most “pop” philosophers that will help to overcome the unknown.
Pyrrho is a famous skeptic, doubting philosopher, denying knowledge
Pyrrho argued that in fact, no one knows anything, nothing can be completely sure. Moreover, you should not even rely on judgments, in the truth of which you believe. Doubt everything. Why such extremes? Because by avoiding hasty judgments, we will save ourselves from disappointment. Be calm. Why worry if we never really know the true state of affairs.
Thomas Hobbes is the greatest political thinker and adept … of fitness
Living in England during the 17th century, this uncle managed to live up to … 91 years! He went in for sports, played tennis, was moderate in food and practiced singing. Hobbes loved life, but people, to put it mildly, not very much. According to Hobbes, all people are selfish, they are driven by the fear of death and the thirst for profit. This is not so, you say? Then why do you close the door of your apartment when you leave home? According to Hobbes, if society disappears, a person’s life will become hopeless, stupid and hopeless. If the state disappears, then a war of all against all will immediately begin. It is also important to follow the internal laws. Do to others as you want to be treated to you. But this law will never be fulfilled unless there is a tough hand that will monitor its implementation.
Benedict Spinoza – lens grinder, man in search of truth
Spinoza denied religious dogmas, believing that God is one for everyone. God is nature, he is present in everything that surrounds us. Spinoza believed that the world has its own logic, nothing happens just like that, everything has its own purpose. Everything that surrounds us is part of a huge system. The worst thing that can happen to a person is to become a slave to their emotions. The best way is to understand the reasons for certain events, to analyze your state, to go from a passive mode to an active one. Even if we experience some emotions, we must understand that this is our choice, and not an incentive imposed from outside.
Arthur Schopenhauer is a cautious and anxious pessimist
The whole philosophy of Schopenhauer is pain, the understanding of which gives purification. We are never satisfied with what we have, we are torn apart by desires and needs, and we can be saved only after death. This is all sad, but Schopenhauer’s philosophy is not as pessimistic as it might seem at first glance. She is rather extremely realistic, she cauterizes all sores in order to give recovery, getting rid of unnecessary things. Schopenhauer considered not only abstract reflections about the world to be a cure for this, but also quite visual and practical art. Yes, yes, it is art that is capable of temporarily breaking the vicious circle of desires and aspirations. Music especially helps in this. Not a single philosopher before that attached such importance to art as Schopenhauer!
Friedrich Nietzsche – the philosopher who looked deep into the abyss and the abyss looked at him
Nietzsche’s philosophy seems to many to be extremely confusing and incomprehensible. However, her main idea is to go beyond the existing moral principles and build her own system of values. In other words, if you are told that THIS is good, it does not mean that THAT is actually good. Remember how the Nazis justified the persecution of Jews and concentration camps. Remember the GULAG. Think back to the Holy Inquisition. At one time it was believed that this is normal. But it turned out NOT NORMAL. Decades passed and society revised its morality and value system. Not because it all fell from the sky, but because there were more and more people who were able to think and question existing dogmas and norms. They invented their own healthier moral principles, talked about them, and over time society adopted them.
Important remark. Nietzsche is considered by many to be the ideologue of the Nazis because of his ideas about the superman. However, it is not. If Nietzsche knew that his creations would become popular at such a price, he would have burned all his texts without hesitation. A question of interpretation! The philosophy of Nietzsche is so deep that it is impossible, FORBIDDEN, to take it literally. We will never be able to understand correctly this great philosopher, if before that we do not question ABSOLUTELY ALL OUR PRINCIPLES. Only then, perhaps, will we know the truth. God is dead.
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